INTRODUCING A NEW BUT NOT SO NEW AQUATIC HERBICIDE TO ADD TO YOUR TOOL BOX “AQUASWEEP”. Alan Bo J. Burns*; Nufarm Americas, Raleigh, NC
AquaSweep is the first liquid premix with a full terrestrial and aquatic uses label. Controls invasive and noxious weeds from the top of a mountain to the bottom of the river or lake including wetlands as well as rangeland and pasture. AquaSweep contains the active ingredients 2,4-D (34.2%) and Triclopry (15.2%). Recent trial and demonstration work will be reveled to show the effectiveness of this product, while showing the selectivity for grasses, allowing excellent recolonization of native non invasive plants. This product can control emergent, floating and submerged aquatic weeds and has shown excellent control of water primrose and many forms of milfoils.
FLOWERING RUSH - UPDATE ON CONTROL TRIAL RESULTS AND STATUS IN WASHINGTON. Jenifer Parsons*1, Laurel Baldwin2; 1Washington Department of Ecology, Yakima, WA, 2Whatcom County NWCB, Bellingham, WA
Flowering rush was first discovered in Washington in 1997, at which time it appeared to be limited to one lake. Since then it has been found in several major river systems, reservoirs and one additional lake and wetland. Containment and control methods have included hand pulling, covering, digging and herbicides. An update will be provided on hand removal in river systems, and on-going field trials with diquat.
CHANGING AQUATIC HERBICIDES FOR A CHANGING WORLD. Kevin D. Waller*; Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District, Berthoud, CO
Kevin Waller. Changing Aquatic Herbicides for a Changing World Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District.
Changes in water use from primarily irrigation to municipal and industry requires a change in the type of aquatic herbicides and methods of control of aquatic pest species. Northern Colorado Water Conservancy (Northern Water) suspended the use of all copper based products for algae and aquatic plant control in 2007 because of State and Federal copper discharge limits to rivers and fish bearing waters. Canal capacity problems soon arose from algal species such as Ulothrix (tenuissima and zonata) and Didymosphenia geminate. Beginning in 2007, Northern Water began applying hydrogen peroxide based products such as PAK-27 and Phycomycin for attached algae control with limited results. In 2012 Northern Water finally had success controlling attached algae in fast flowing, concrete-lined irrigation canals using Green Clean Liquid. For canals moving less water, Phycomycin and Green Clean Pro were applied in 2013-2014 using a custom-made air powered applicator. A combination of dewatering and blowing Phycomycin/Green Clean Pro onto attached algae on the canal sides and to True Moss (Bryophyta) on the canal bottom proved highly effective.
Elodea and Eurasian Water Mifoil are hard to control using Teton/Cascade at labeled rates in flowing water with both domestic and irrigation uses. Higher (but labeled) rates of Teton/Cascade can be used to control problem aquatic plants after irrigation canals go off for the season, but before they dry up. Since 2011, Northern Water has successfully made Fall applications with a truck-mounted ground rig when irrigation canals are off but still in a “ponded condition”. Water quality sampling has shown that the endothall disappears from ponded water in less than 3 weeks.
Irrigators can control aquatic plants and algae by changing products, changing timing and changing conditions to benefit them and their water users.
SPECTRUM AND EFFICACY OF STINGRAYR FOR CONTROL OF FLOWERING RUSH (BUTOMUS UMBELLATUS) IN AQUATIC AND RIPARIAN AREAS. Andrew Z. Skibo*1, Ben Willis2; 1SePRO Corporation, Fort Collins, CO, 2SePRO Corporation, Whitakers, NC
Flowering Rush (Butomus umbellatus), has spread across the northern United States and is now listed as noxious/invasive in numerous Western US States. Flowering Rush is adapted to areas of seasonal fluctuation, abiotic/ anthropogenic disturbances such as littoral zones, flood plains, irrigation canals, wastewater areas, other areas of seasonal fluctuation/ disturbances. As this species is commonly found in areas that dictate the use of aquatically labelled herbicides, site managers are significantly limited with regards to effective chemical options and those with restricted uses in and around waters intended for irrigation purposes. A number of herbicide chemistries (imazapyr, fluridone, topramezone, penoxsulam) are known to be effective when applied as preëmergent treatments to established stands of Flowering Rush, however, these regimens require exposure of the hydrosoil for application. Other active ingredients with more rapid apparent activity (e.g. diquat, endothall), while highly effective at reducing emerged biomass, are relatively ineffective at controlling belowground biomass and require numerous applications over sequential seasons to effectively reduce Flowering Rush biomass in established stands.
Studies were conducted in the greenhouse and in the field to evaluate relative efficacy of Stingray® (a.i. carfentrazone-ethyl), alone and in combinations with Clearcast® for emergent biomass reduction during season of application and rhizome reduction, as measured in stand regrowth during subsequent growing seasons. These trials cdemonstrated a high level of efficacy in reducing Flowering Rush biomass at 28.6 - 224g/ha; indicating Flowering Rush was extremely susceptible to Stingray even at 15% of the maximum label rate (e.g. 33.6g/ha). Additional microcosm trials investigating the performance of Stingray® in combination with Clearcast® indicated the threshold of 33.6g/ha Stingray in combination with 560g/ha of Clearcast was capable of removing plant biomass and increase the longevity of control to eleven weeks after treatment (WAT). Field assays, treated with Stingray alone (100.8 and 224 g/ha) and in combination with Clearcast (280 and 560 g/ha, respectively) demonstrated similar response with regards to emergent biomass control, (≥90%) 28DAT for all rates of Stingray® alone and Stingray® at 280 g/ha in combination with Clearcast® (280 g/ha). While second season data is yet to be collected, the results of these trials indicate that Stingray alone or in combination with a systemic partner such as Sonar® or Renovate®, is a highly cost effective management option for the management of Flowering Rush in a number of sites as compared to less selective or more expensive options.
 Hroudová, Z., A. Krahulcová, P. Zákravský, V. Jarolímová. 1996. The biology of Butomus umbellatus in shallow waters with fluctuating water level. Hydrobiologia 340:27—30
 Madsen, J.D., 2014. Flowering Rush in Detroit Lakes: From Research to an Operational Management Program, 3rd Northern Rockies Invasive Plant Council Conference, Spokane, WA. http://www.wrpmc.ucdavis.edu/Research/Floweringrush/80%20Madsen%20Detroit%20Lakes.pdf
 Maximum Label Rate of Stingray® is 224g/ha
WASHINGTON STATE AQUATIC PLANT AND ALGAE MANAGEMENT NPDES GENERAL PERMIT REVISION AND REISSUANCE. Nathan R. Lubliner*; WA Department of Ecology, Olympia, WA
The current Aquatic Plant and Algae Management NPDES General Permit will expire in March 2016. The process of revising and reissuing this permit will begin in spring 2015. Changes being considered by Ecology for inclusion in the next issuance of the permit will be presented. Ecology would also like to solicit input from permit users on what they feel needs revision in the upcoming reissuance of the permit.
HOW TO GET MORE BANG FOR YOUR BUCK. Patrick A. Simmsgeiger*; Diversified Waterscapes Inc., Laguna Niguel, CA
How to Get More Bang for Your Buck
Undesirable Aquatic plants can have a plethora of undesirable effects on aquatic ecosystems. These negative effects run the gamut from aesthetic, such as unattractive water coloration and foul odors, to the ecological, including lowered D.O. levels and interruption of natural food chain. The solution has been the application of herbicides to achieve high degrees of success. Knowing this, we intend to show how we cut the costs of herbicide application without sacrificing overall effectiveness. In our study, we demonstrate how combination of the herbicide Clipper and our proprietary algaecide and enzyme solution have achieved the same degree of efficacy while using lower doses of herbicide. By achieving this, we have ensured the most cost-effective and potent treatment to maintain a balanced aquatic ecosystem
FLOWERING RUSH MANAGEMENT: MOVING TOWARDS A LONG-TERM BIOLOGICALLY-BASED MANAGEMENT APPROACH. John D. Madsen*1, Gray Turnage2; 1USDA ARS, Davis, CA, 2Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS
Flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus) is an invasive emergent plant that has created nuisance problems in the eastern US and Canada, the Midwest, and in the western US. Ecologically, it demonstrates tremendous plasticity in being able to thrive as a fully or largely submersed plant or an emergent plant, in standing water or water that fluctuates widely over the year, and across a range of climatic conditions. Research on management has not revealed a widely-applicable operational use pattern of herbicides or other technique. Flowering rush produces large numbers of buds on their rhizomes, as many as 400 buds per square meter, or over one million per acre. The rhizome bud is the key life history feature for targeting control. For long term success, the density of rhizome buds must continue to decline over time. Detroit Lakes (MN) utilizes two diquat treatments per year that both provides nuisance release, and results in a decrease in rhizome bud density each year. Much more work, however, needs to be done to achieve the goal of long-term management.
USDA ARS RESEARCH ON AQUATIC WEEDS: AN OVERVIEW. John D. Madsen*; USDA ARS, Davis, CA
The USDA ARS Exotic and Invasive Weed Research Unit have a long history of researching aquatic weeds in California and the West. Rather than survey the entire history and overview of recent research and future directions will be presented. The unit has two scientists in Albany focused on the biological control of aquatic and terrestrial weeds. They are evaluating insects that feed on water hyacinth, hydrilla, egeria, water primrose, giant reed, and others. The Albany scientists are housed in the USDA Western Regional Research Center, and utilize greenhouses and a quarantine facility there. The unit has three scientists at the Davis location are co-located with the Plant Sciences department of University of California-Davis, and have a research station with the experimental farms. These scientists examine the biology, systematics, and ecology of aquatic weeds, as well as evaluate other management techniques. Weeds of interest include algae, egeria, Eurasian watermilfoil, giant reed, hydrilla, water hyacinth, water primrose and other species, and work in systems across the West including the Russian River, Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, and others. The EIWRU works with many federal, state and local government agencies, user groups, and others to improve management of invasive weeds.
JAPANESE KNOTWEED (FALLOPIA SPP.) STAND REDUCTION FOLLOWING MID-SEASON HERBICIDE TREATMENTS - YEAR ONE. Andrew Z. Skibo*1, Mark J. VanGessel2, Michael Yost3; 1SePRO Corporation, Fort Collins, CO, 2University of Delaware, Georgetown, DE, 3Delaware DNREC, Dover, DE
A multi-season field trial was initiated 2014 to evaluate the single and sequential season efficacy of selected POST-applied triclopyr, carfentrazone-ethyl, and glyphosate combinations on Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum syn Fallopia japonica syn Reynoutria japonica) as compared to a mechanical mowing only regimen. Treatments included Stingray (a.i.: carfentrazone-ethyl), Clearcast (a.i.: imazamox), Habitat (a.i.: imazapyr), AquaPro (a.i.: glyphosate), Renovate 3 (a.i.: triclopyr), Clearcast in combination with AquaPro, Clearcast plus Stingray, Habitat plus Stingray, and Renovate 3 in combination with Stingray. Visiual injury (0-100%) were taken 28, 42, aand 75 DAT, with plans to take further injury ratings and biomass dry-weight analysis 30 days after emergence (DAE) 2015. Initial ratings (28DAT) confirmed a slow manifestation of symptomatology in all chemical treatments as compared to the mechnically mowed plots with Stingray (58%), Renovate 3 (65%) and AquaPro (60%) applied alone and the combination of Habitat and Stingray (66%) providing the highest injury ratings. Visiual injury at 42DAT was significnatly higher for all treatments except Stingray alone (37%) and the combination of Clearcast plus Stingray (37%) versus the mowed plots (~60%) and the untreated control. Visual injury 75DAT showed a clear demarcation in control values between contact-type modes of action and the systemics, with the highest ratings in the Habitat, AquaPro, and Renovate 3 plots. The combination of Habitat plus Stingray was significantly higher than all other treatments combined (99%) 75DAT. Implications for site management in aquatic, riparian, and other ecologically sensitive environments will be discussed as well as the results seen over multiple seasons in prior trials with these chemistries.
TAME MELALEUCA: THE END OF AN ERROR. Paul Pratt*; USDA/ARS, Albany, CA
Since its introduction into Florida, Melaleuca quinquenervia (melaleuca) has come to symbolize one of the most significant
threats to biodiversity: the spre[PP1] ad of aggressive, non-native plants into wetland systems. In south Florida,
melaleuca has colonized almost every vegetation community, from sawgrass marshes to pine uplands, forming dense forests that crowd out native vegetation and the birds and animals that depend on it. The South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD) and other members of the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council began an aggressive campaign to suppress melaleuca populations in south Florida using available mechanical, chemical and cultural controls, and documented their approach in the Melaleuca Management Plan. After a decade, melaleuca acreage on public lands decreased dramatically, but it continued to spread on private properties and reinvade neighboring public lands.
An even more comprehensive approach was available after new biological control agents were introduced to assist in the management of melaleuca. However, serious questions remained regarding how these insects could be integrated into
the existing control options and if they would aid in controlling the weed where management efforts ended: on private lands. In 2001 the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS), SFWMD, the National Parks Service, Army Corps of Engineers, and several other agencies created the TAME Melaleuca project to continue promoting melaleuca management on public and private lands,
and to demonstrate effective inclusion of biological control in management strategies.
Demonstration sites were established and “Melapaleuza” events were created as a series of training workshops and field tours. As a result of these educational programs, land managers from over 40 agencies that are responsible for invasive species
control efforts on over 1.4 million acres were equipped with the information needed to implement an integrated melaleuca management program on the majority of infested acres in the state.
STRATEGIES FOR INVASIVE WATERMILFOIL MANAGEMENT USING SONAR AQUATIC HERBICIDE AND RELATED HERBICIDE COMBINATIONS. Scott Shuler*, Mark Heilman, Ph.D.; SePRO Corporation, Carmel, IN
Management of invasive watermilfoil--both common parental Eurasian watermilfoil and now emerging issues with hybrid crosses of Eurasian and Northern watermilfoil--requires a balance between optimizing long-term control and selectivity to native aquatic vegetation. Low-dose use patterns for Sonar® Aquatic Herbicide (ai. fluridone) were developed in the 1990's to attempt to balance these key technical factors. Recent management efforts utilizing various pellet formulations and different timing of initial application and duration of exposure as well as combinations with other different herbicides provide complementary, alternate strategies for future management of invasive watermilfoil. The presentation will review several representative treatment efforts from around the US including herbicide dissipation and vegetation assessment data to describe the benefits and limitations of past use patterns and suggest several directions moving forward to improve further upon a history of successful management outcomes.
NEW TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES TO MANAGE HYBRID MILFOIL. Terry M. McNabb*; Aquatechnex, LLC, Bellingham, WA
Hybridization of Eurasian Watermilfoil and native species has resulted in plants that don\'t necessarily react to conventional herbicide treatment strategies. This paper will present key concepts in managing this species with herbicides to maximize control
MAPPING OF CREEPING WATERPRIMROSE (LUDWIGIA SPP. L.) WITH CONVENTIONAL COLOR GEO-REFERENCED IMAGERY IN THE WILLAMETTE BASIN. . Glenn A. Miller*; Oregon Department of Agriculture, Pleasant Hill, OR
Land managers have only recently become aware of the rapid establishment and expansion of Ludwigia hexapetala (Hook) and L. peploides (Kunth) in the Willamette Basin of Oregon. Plant surveys for these species thus far have been limited and ground-based only because of complex ownership patterns and difficulty traversing low lying wetlands. Imagery from four aerial surveys of the Southern Willamette Valley were generated and examined for baseline Ludwigia spp. characteristics that can be applied to future surveys. Confusion with other aquatic species such as wapato (broadleaf arrowhead) (Sagittaria latifolia Willd.), parrot’s feather and smartweed can occur. Since Ludwigia flowers are yellow, large, and distinctive, aerial images with ground resolution of finer than 2.4cm could be used for initial detection. In addition to flower color, the growth form, position along riverine channels, and texture of the Ludwigia mat allowed us to identify probable infestations. Potential Ludwigia sites were documented and made available to local land management organizations for ground-truthing in summer 2015. Through the use of fixed wing aircraft, productivity of the survey was high. An aerial survey of a 120 km (70 mile) river channel can be completed in a day.
WATER QUALITY AND LAKE HEALTH: THE ROLE OF PROACTIVE MANAGEMENT. Patrick A. Simmsgeiger*; Diversified Waterscapes Inc., Laguna Niguel, CA
Problems in lake management are often characterized by one of several key factors – environmental change, nuisance species, agricultural runoff. Yet, many of the most financially and ecologically significant problems have their true roots in lake misdiagnoses made early on, which lack foresight, and are founded upon mere visual observation of surface conditions. In this paper, I show how this classification of lakes based on visual appearance leads to inferior water quality, lake aesthetic, and ultimately, more expensive chemical and physical intervention compared with scheduled maintenance from a licensed professional. Within the paper, I will invoke case studies with scenarios that exemplify the kinds of aquatic issues not revealed by visual observation. In doing so, this analysis will inform an assessment of how proactive management strategies are the most cost-effective, sustainable, and secure method of protecting one’s investment in their aquatic environment.
MONOECIOUS HYDRILLA TUBER DYNAMICS FOLLOWING VARIOUS MANAGEMENT REGIMES. Justin J. Nawrocki*; North Carolina State University, RALEIGH, NC
Hydrilla [Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle] is the most economically damaging aquatic weed in the United States. Long term hydrilla control is complicated by persistent subterranean turions (tubers) that have been shown to remain viable for at least 6 years. Elimination of the tuber bank is essential for long term control or eradication efforts. Research was conducted on four North Carolina lakes to evaluate monoecious hydrilla tuber dynamics and to determine the effects of specific management techniques on monoecious hydrilla tuber numbers over time. Lake Gaston, Lake Tillery, Shearon Harris Lake, and the Tar River Reservoir were sampled for up to 7 years. Management practices and their effects on tuber density were assessed on each lake. Chemical control sites using fluridone were assessed on Lakes Tillery and Gaston whereas a combination of fluridone use, biological control through sterile grass carp, and physical control through drought induced summer drawdown was assessed on the Tar River Reservoir. Sites on Lake Gaston and Shearon Harris Reservoir with no active management were used as a control. De-watering and fluridone application in 2007 thru 2012 as well as a low density of grass carp stocking in 2013 resulted in an overall decrease in tuber density of 100% in the Tar River Reservoir. Two tubers found on the Tar River Reservoir in fall 2012 were assumed to be 6 years or older and were still viable. Lake Gaston sites subjected to fluridone treatment every other year demonstrated a tuber bank reduction of 26% after 2 years and 60% after 4 years. Sites on Lake Gaston that were treated consecutively for 2 years exhibited a 75% reduction in tuber density. On the unmanaged Shearon Harris Reservoir, average whole lake densities ranged from 838 to 2,050 tubers per m2 from 2008 to 2013. At a single sample site a density of 3,244 tubers per m2 was recorded in the fall of 2008, which is higher than previously reported in situ.
BONNEVILLE COUNTY SEARCH AND RESCUE DIVERS HELP FIGHT FLOWERING RUSH IN HYDROELECTRIC DAM PROJECT TO PROTECT IRRIGATION WATERS. Jeffrey Pettingill*; Bonneville County, Idaho Falls, ID
Flowering rush was recently found in one of four hydro-electric reservoirs belonging to the City of Idaho Falls. Off of this system flows a small irrigation systme that covers a small 9 miles of ditches and canals of which irrigates many agricultural field, pastures, home lawns, and one Mom-and-Pop golf course. The Idaho State listed noxious weed was found in 30% of the irrigation system. Bonneville County Weed Control solicited the help of the Bonneville County Sheriffs Office Search and Rescue Dive team to help remove the weed from the Reservoir. The divers would dive down, hand remove the roots, and transport the weeds to the surface where crewman were collecting them for proper disposal. Bonneville County then worked with the local irrigation company to start herbicide treatments of the irrigation system for the weed. Applications of three different herbicides were utilized as soon as the water was out of the system in October, of which involved home-owners, farmers, and government agencies to pull it off.
A differnt approach at getting communities involved to solve a community problem. Tough weed, but with collaboration from unique sources we will contain the problem. County Weed Departments key activity is to get people to work together with different agencies, all to protect our valuable natural resources.
AQUATIC INVASIVE SPECIES (AIS) MANAGEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCE IN THE SACRAMENTO-SAN JOAQUIN DELTA. Wendy B. Pratt*; Crowe Horwath LLP, Sacramento, CA
The California Department of Parks and Recreation, Division of Boating and Waterways (DBW) has legislative authority to conduct control programs for three AIS: water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Brazilian elodea (Egeria densa), and South American spongeplant (Limnobium laevigatum). These control programs take place in a complex tidal environment that is arguably one of the most environmentally and politically sensitive regions in California. The programs were authorized by separate state legislation in 1982, 1996, and 2012. In 2013, California created a new process for authorizing new AIS control programs in the Delta, eliminating the need for separate legislation to establish each new AIS control program.
The regulatory and permit compliance requirements for the three current control programs are complex. DBW, with their federal and local partners, complies with the federal Endangered Species Act, Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, Clean Water Act, California Environmental Quality Act, California Endangered Species Act, and County Agricultural Commissioner requirements. Navigating this regulatory environment on a species-by-species basis has been dynamic, complex and time-consuming.
Recent initiatives to better understand and address plant AIS challenges in the Delta have highlighted the complexity of these programs and the regulatory environment in which they operate. DBW and other federal, state, and local stakeholders are developing a more holistic and comprehensive approach that could better address and manage the on-going, expanding, and challenging issues facing AIS control in the Delta. This presentation will examine the current environmental compliance landscape in the Delta, and discuss steps DBW and their partners will be taking to develop a comprehensive Delta Aquatic Invasive Species Management Plan, including a longer-term approach to support federal Endangered Species Act compliance.
MECHANICAL CONTROL OF WATER HYACINTH IN THE SACRAMENTO/SAN JOAQUIN DELTA SYSTEM.. Thomas J. McNabb*; Clean Lakes, Inc., Coeur d'Alene, ID
In early December 2014, the California State Parks Division of Boating and Waterways (DBW) began a mechanical Water Hyacinth control program in parts of the Delta system. The impacts from a late season Water Hyacinth infestation included impeding freight vessel movement within as well as to and from the Port of Stockton, clogging of fish screens at the USBR Tracy Fish Facility, impeding water deliveries to the San Luis & Delta Mendota Water Authority System, recreational use, and environmental degradation. A review of the late 2014 and early 2015 mechanical control efforts and outcomes will be reviewed.
COEUR D&RSQUO;ALENE LAKE MILFOIL CONTROL PROGRAM UPDATE. Ben D. Scofield*; Coeur d'Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID
Both Myriophyllum spicatum and the hybrid M. spicatum × M. sibiricum are present in Coeur d’Alene Lake, Idaho. Annual control efforts for these invasive milfoils began in 2006. Control techniques have included herbicide, bottom barriers, diver suction dredging, and hand pulling. Treatment efficacies have varied widely and issues contributing to variable efficacies will be discussed. For herbicide treatments, water exchange and maintaining adequate contact times has been identified as a major challenge. Long term and within season plant community response to treatments will also be discussed.